Radiation mitigation techniques
Radiation hardening by process
The technique of using materials that are less susceptible to radiation such as gallium arsenide or sapphire instead of silicon in chip manufacturing.
This requires reconfiguring manufacturing pipelines which ended up being too expensive for a niche market such as space. This is rarely used anymore.
Radiation hardening by design
Triple modular redundancy (TMR): each bit is repeated 3 times. Use majority voting when reading a bit.
- Staff, Ars. “Space-Grade CPUs: How Do You Send More Computing Power into Space?” Ars Technica, November 11, 2019. https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/11/space-grade-cpus-how-do-you-send-more-computing-power-into-space/.